Monday, November 28, 2016

Sam's Annotated Bibliography (2)

I will continue with my annotated bibliography with my scholarly sources and two performances that I watched of Hamlet and Macbeth.  I've been working on revising my thesis, as well, but I've been struggling a bit with where exactly I want this paper to go. I have a lot of ideas, but I'm not sure if I want to focus solely on "millennials" or if I want to expand by not focusing on a specific age group but rather a specific social group as it relates to Shakespeare, for example, students studying Shakespeare, students who don't study Shakespeare, and just average people that may or may not have had interaction with the Bard themselves. I want to expand more on what Pinterest can do to help with not only enthusiasm and basic understanding of Shakespeare, but also on a interpretive, literary level (kind of what we've done in this class).  If anybody has any suggestions, I would really appreciate that. I'm having a hard time nailing down the exact thesis statement, but I'm meeting with Dr. Burton after class tomorrow to see what we can do to figure it out.

I've been requesting books from the library and finding articles online, and I think I will have a lot of materials to work with.

Works Cited
Scholarly Sources: 

Bentley, Gerald Eades. Shakespeare & Johnson: Their Reputations in the Seventeenth Century Compared. Vol. 1. Chicago: U of Chicago, 1945. Print.
This is a book about the reputation of Shakespeare in the 17th century, immediately after his death. I would use this in order to talk about how our view of Shakespeare has changed throughout history. 
Brantlinger, Patrick. Who Killed Shakespeare?: What's Happened to English since the Radical Sixties. New York: Routledge, 2001. Print.
This book is about the fact that people have decreased their studies of the humanities, especially in English and Shakespearian studies, since the 60s. I will use this similarly to the previous source, showing the changes that we have experienced in our understanding of Shakespeare. 
Hansen, Kirsten, Gillian Nowlan, and Christina Winter. "Pinterest as a Tool: Applications in Academic Libraries and Higher Education." The Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research 7.2 (2012): 1-9. Harold B Lee Library. Web. 28 Nov. 2016.
This is an article about ways that Pinterest can be used in promoting higher education. I will use this article to build my argument that Pinterest is relevant in Shakespearian studies. 
Sashittal, Hemant C., and Avan R. Jassawalla. "Why Do College Students Use Pinterest? A Model and Implications for Scholars and Marketers." Journal of Interactive Advertising 15.1 (2015): 54-64. Harold B Lee Library. Web. 28 Nov. 2016.
This is an article about college students and what attracts them to Pinterest. I would use this article to narrow my analysis to college students, specifically. 


Hamlet: The Royal Shakespeare Company Production Starring David Tennant. Dir. Gregory Donan. Perf. David Tennant and Patrick Stewart. The Royal Shakespearian Company, 2009. Youtube.
This was an incredible performance of Hamlet done by the Royal Shakespeare Company in 2009.  I think I could use this source to highlight how we can fit Shakespeare into our modern world. 
The Tempest. Dir. Julie Taymor. Perf. Helen Mirren and Russell Brandt. Touchstone, 2010. Youtube.
This was a movie released in 2010. I would use this for similar purposes as my other performance source, showing how we can twist Shakespeare's plots and language to fit different visions of what he meant. 

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Saturday, November 19, 2016

Hanann's Annotated Bibliography (2)

New working thesis: The imagery used in Hamlet such as flowers, ears, and dirt all symbolize Hamlet’s theme of action vs. inaction.

Social Sources

a.      Homies: Does my Mom count as a homie? She has an MA in English and loves Shakespeare. I’ve had so many good talks with her about the psychoanalytical side of Hamlet and its symbolism that I want to include.
b.      Peers: Jessica Groberg. My roommate. We’ve had many late-night talks about Hamlet and why characters’ actions lead to tragedy in the play.
c.       Enthusiasts: Jane Pike. An old friend I haven’t contacted in a long time. Loves anything Shakespeare and I’m looking forward to talking with her.
d.      Experts: Brandie Siegfried. I’ve heard a lot from peers about how smart Siegfried is about Shakespeare. My mom says she’s intimidating, but brilliant, so I’m interested to see what she has to say about the imagery in Hamlet.

Media/Informal Sources

Project, Ashley. “Action Vs. Inaction: Hamlet Theme Project.” Prezi Presentation. 19 November 2016.

Prezi Presentation on action in Hamlet. Helped me compare the moments Hamlet does act with the moments he doesn’t.

Grabau, Lydia. “Hamlet Dramaturgy.” Blog. 19 November 2016. Web.

Blog about the symbolism of Ophelia’s flowers. The flowers to me represent Ophelia finally taking action and speaking out against the people who have hurt her, even if she is mad. But you’d never know she was speaking out without knowing what the flowers symbolize.
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Grace's Annotated Bibliography (2)

So for my second blog post, I was really looking to posting my second round of sources, since this was where I drew most of my inspiration for this paper.

Media Sources:

Ereria, Alan. "Kings and Queens of England", BBC, 2004. 

So this source is what really sparked my interest in the similarities between King Lear's character, and earlier British monarchs. I found it to be highly informative, and I enjoyed the flow. 

McKellan, Ian. King Lear. (2008) 

I enjoyed this production of the play, and used it to get a greater feel for Lear's character. It really helps to see the play performed in order to get a good perspective of the characters strengths, flaws, and other traits. It was through this that I really started to see a lot of the similarities between Lear and historic British rulers. 

Academic Sources:

Shakespeare, William. King Lear. 

It's kind of a no brainer, but naturally, I would use Shakespeare and the actual text from the play to help me write my paper. 

Hiscock, Andrew, Lisa Hopkins. King Lear: A Critical Guide. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011.

This critical guide helps to explicate some of the finer points of the characters in the play, so I can better explain how Lear's character relates to the historical figures I'll be discussing in this paper.

Pearsall, Ronald. Kings and Queens: A History of the British Monarchy. Todtri, 1998.

This history is cited here because I will be using it to iron out some of the finer details on the British monarchy, and give me a different perspective on the history than the documentary I cited in my first bibliography. 

Greaves, Richard, L. Society and Religion in Elizabethan England. University of Minnesota Press, 1981. 

I will be using this source to write with greater understanding of the reception King Lear would have received in Shakespeare's day, and how well versed they were in the history of their own monarchy. This knowledge provides vital understanding in my writing on my point that there is a correlation between King Lear's character, and certain members of the British monarchy. 
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Friday, November 18, 2016

Garrett's Annotated Bibliography (2)

Working Title: "The Regal Responsibility: A Look at Authority in Shakespeare"
Working Thesis: "Though responsibility is usually seen as something that people choose or accept, Shakespeare's characters show that responsibility is actually the controlling factor in their decisions and lives."

Scholarly Sources:

Bezio, Kristin M.S. "Drama and Demigods: Kingship and Charisma in Shakespeare's England."Religions, vol. 4, 2013, pp. 30-50, academia. edu, _Demigods_Kingship_and_Charisma_in_Shakespeare_s_England.

This article was suggested to me by a classmate. It is about how authority in the kingship affect's Shakespeare's plays and characters, and should be useful in examining responsibility.

Godshalk, L. "Henry V's Politics of Non-Responsibility." Caheirs elisabethains, vol. 17, 1980, pp. 11-20,

I want to dive into Henry V and this article will be a huge benefit. It talks a lot about how he ruled, using this term, "non-responsibility." This idea of not having responsibility will be beneficial for my views on the idea.

Sider, John Wm. "The Serious Elements of Shakespeare's Comedies." Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 1, 1973, pp. 1-11. JSTOR,

I wanted to look at Twelfth Night and its more serious tones. This article talks about some of these ideas, including responsibility. It also has a section on an interesting idea that Polonius was the cause of Ophelia's death, which is fascinating, and could be an interesting look on responsibility in Shakespeare.

Lehnhof, Kent R. "Relation and Responsibility: A Levinasian Reading of King Lear." Modern Philology, vol. 111, no. 3, 2014, pp. 485-509. EbscoHost, pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=e017e922-17a4-4a28-b48e-c4d75257c4c9%40sessionmgr4008&vid=2&hi d=4207.

This article focuses on the responsibility of those in King Lear in their relationships. I think this will be invaluable, since it includes an outlook other than just the responsibility in their positions as characters.

Informal Sources

Peter. "Shakespeare on Responsibility." Shakespeare for All Time, 2011, www.shakespeareforallti

Peter, the only name this person went by, talks about how Shakespeare taught him that we have to own up for our responsibility. His ideas, and how he got them, could be useful to me.

sgreen30. "Hamlet's War: Responsibility vs. Passion." Wordpress, 2016, 4/04/28/hamlets-war-responsibility-vs-passion/.

And finally, this blog post focuses on an idea I want to delve into, how does Hamlet's responsibility work in the play? Does his passion take over? This post should be useful to me and answering that question.
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Abby's Annotated Bibliography (2)

Working Title:

"Et tu, Brute?" - What's really in a name?

Working Thesis Statement:

Although naming may not directly cause violence, it can create an association and dissociation between the speaker, audience, and subject that incites extreme emotions that lead to violence.

Scholarly Sources:

Schalkwyk, David. “’What’s in a name’: Derrida, apartheid, and the logic of the proper name.” Language Sciences, 22, 2000, pp. 167-191. <>
This article discusses the relationship between sign, signifier, and signified through focusing on Derrida’s analysis of Juliet’s “O Romeo” speech, and argues that names are not arbitrary and that Romeo’s name does actually matter. I’d like to use this source to establish background on the purpose of naming in general and combat Juliet’s assertion that Romeo’s name is insignificant.
 Brisman, Leslie. “‘At Thy Word’: A Reading of ‘Romeo and Juliet’.” The Bulletin of the Midwest Modern Language Association, vol. 8, no. 1, Spring 1975, pp. 21-31 <>
This article talks about the significance of naming in Romeo and Juliet, specifically of Juliet’s balcony scene and the interactions between Romeo, Tybalt, and Mercutio. I’d like to use this source to provide commentary on Tybalt and Mercutio’s violent name calling and later deaths, showing that they used naming to create distance between themselves and their enemies.
 Walker, Eric C. “Wordsworth, Warriors, and Naming.” Studies in Romanticism, vol. 29, 1990, pp. 223-40. <>
This article discusses the significance of naming in William Wordsworth’s poetry, and specifically of allusions to the names in Romeo and Juliet and Julius Caesar. I’d like to use this source to merge the context of naming between the two plays. Weidhorn, Manfred. “The Rose and Its Name: On Denomination in Othello, Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar.” Texas Studes in Literature and Language, vol. 11, 1969, pp. 671-86. <>This article discusses the importance of names in Othello, Romeo and Juliet, and Julius Caesar, and claims that the power of naming is most prominent in Julius Caesar. I’d like to use this source in order to provide background on what has already been said about naming in Julius Caesar and Romeo and Juliet, as well as strengthen the connection between the two. 


 Julius Caesar. Directed by Stuart Burge, performances by Charlton Heston, Jason Robards, and John Gielgud. Commonwealth United, 1970, <>. Accessed 14 Nov. 2016.
This is Commonwealth’s production of Julius Caesar. I liked it in comparison to some others that I found because it had background music and mostly good acting. I want to talk specifically about the scenes where Cassius convinces Brutus to betray Caesar and Mark Antony speaking to the plebeians at Caesar’s funeral. Cassius carves Brutus’ name into a wall beneath Caesar’s name, and then crosses out Caesar’s name, and Mark Antony reveal’s Caesar’s body to the public. Both provide powerful images to the words of the play and show how the speaker tried to bring the audience closer to them.
 Romeo and Juliet. Directed by Franco Zeffirelli, performances by Leonardo Whiting and Olivia Hussey.  BHE Films.<> Accessed 18 Nov. 2016.
This clip takes you to the balcony scene of the movie. I liked this movie production of Romeo and Juliet because it still took a classical approach to the play. I want to talk about the body language in the balcony scene where Juliet speaks to Romeo (hypothetically), as well as the body language with Tybalt’s and Mercutio’s interactions, in order to show a connection that proves that the speaker strengthens both associations and dissociations with the use of naming.

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Riley's Annotated Bibliography (2)

Working Title: Romeo, Juliet, & Hip-Hop: Setting the Stage for Civil Disobedience
(is this title too wordy?)

Working Thesis: The modern hip-hop appropriation of Romeo and Juliet illuminates the play's salient theme of civil disobedience and reaffirms that individual expression is a weapon against institutionalized hatred.

Social Sources

Homie - I had a conversation with my roommate Elisha Ransom who is an avid Shakespeare lover and someone i've had copious conversations with about Henry David Thoreau in the past. After reading Romeo and Juliet and finding, myself, connections to Thoreau's "Civil Disobedience" I discussed with her possible comparisons between the two texts.

Peers - I discussed themes of Romeo and Juliet with my coworker, Claire Moore. I chose to speak with her (as well as a few others) because I wanted to know what people who didn't study literature thought of Romeo and Juliet; that is, the play is so well known that you can strike up a conversation with anyone around you and they have some opinion about it. The general census was that Romeo and Juliet is about two dumb teenagers who act rashly and kill themselves over "love" because they're melodramatic. No one I spoke with (Claire and 3 others) liked the play or saw any value in it. I think the various hip-hop approprations contradict such a reading.

Enthusiast - I've contacted (via email) the South African cheographer, Jessica Nupen, who cheographed one of the productions I mentioned in my first bibliography. She created this performance called "Rebellion and Johannesburg" and its a hip-hop routine that uses R&J as the backdrop to what is essentially social actvism through dance. I reached out to her to discuss why she thought R&J was the appropriate story to use in a production that highlights civil disobedience through dance. And I'm awaiting a response from her.

However, I've also contacted a local dance instructor, Celeste Maughan, and we'll be meeting tomorrow (11/19) to discuss the general culture of hip-hop and how it plays a role in creating a dialouge of civil disobedience.

Expert: I did not get the chance to speak with Robert Means in person; however, I've emailed him to discuss finding sources in regards to civil disobedience and R&J. I'm having a difficult time finding scholarship that writes explicity about rebellion or disobedience in R&J and I thought Robert Means would be able to help me identify what and/or where I should be looking for those sources.

Media/Informal Sources

Akala. "Hip-Hop and Shakespeare." Ted: (2011). Web. 17 Nov. 2016.

Akala, founder of the hip-hop shakespeare company, talks about the relationship of language between Shakespeare and hip-hop and how Shakespeare lends itself to hip-hop appropriation. This ted talk gives a broad overview of the relationship between hip-hop and shakespeare and his focus of language can be useful.

Wimberly, Ronald. The Prince of Cats. Vertigo: 2012. Graphic Novel. Web. 18 Nov. 2016.

This graphic novel highlights Tybalt and his "caputlet crew." It takes place in down-town Brooklyn and is written in iambic pentameter. It will be interesting to compare how hip-hop is used interpretively beyond my arguement of civil disobedience. (see below)

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Mallory's Annotated Bibliography (2)

Working title: "Do Photographic Representations Cheapen Shakespeare's Classic Characters?"

Working thesis statement: While it is normal to want to interpret Shakespeare's characters through photographs, confining a well-rounded character to a one dimensional photograph can harm the portrayal of Shakespeare's work, causing more damage than intended.

My original idea was to look at several different Shakespeare plays, but I keep drifting towards Ophelia in Hamlet... should I narrow it down just to Hamlet, or should I branch out and find some other examples?

Scholarly Sources
Belsey, Catherine. "Shakespeare and Film: A Question of Perspective." Literature/Film Quarterly, vol. 11, no. 3, 1983, p. 152-158.
Belsey starts her article talking about ambiguity and art, and how it is important to look at Shakespeare in multiple forms, rather than assuming that one particular depiction of a play is the only way to analyze it. Her paper aims to argue the same thing that my paper argues, so I believe that I can find points in her paper to back my argument up.

Rothwell, Kenneth S. A History of Shakespeare on Screen, Second Edition. Cambridge University Press, 2004.
This book is about Shakespeare representations on screen. While my paper is focused on photographic representations, this book discusses how long it took to start having Shakespeare adapted to film, and the negative reactions many people had to Shakespeare being so widely available. Many people feared it was degrading to the Bard's great work, which is exactly what my paper is on.

Pettersson, Mikael. “Depictive Traces: On the Phenomenology of Photography.” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, vol. 69, no. 2, 2011, pp. 185–196.
This paper discusses the use photography has in our society. While it doesn't talk about Shakespeare, it does analyze why we gravitate towards photos so much, and how the exactness present in a photograph changes how close we feel to the subject. Going into the psychological effect of photography could make it easier to understand our interpretation of photographs of Shakespeare's characters.

Pressly, William L. “The Ashbourne Portrait of Shakespeare: Through the Looking Glass.” Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 44, no. 1, 1993, pp. 54–72.
While at first glance, this article doesn't seem helpful, it discusses people's reactions to Ashbourne's portrait of Shakespeare. It caused some problems because people wanted to project their own idea of who Shakespeare was on to the portrait, but when something is right there in front of your face, it's hard to read too many different ways in to it. In the same way, it is hard to read too many different ways into a photograph, which causes problems when Shakespeare's characters are so multifaceted.

Media Sources
Kate Winslet as Ophelia in Hamlet. N.d. Women Reading. Web. 18 Nov. 2016.
This image shows Ophelia holding books and seemingly sane. She seems inquisitive and in complete control of her mind, which is how I believe Ophelia should be portrayed.

Waterhouse, John William. Ophelia. Digital image. Wikipedia. N.p., 13 Nov. 2016. Web. 18 Nov. 2016.
This image of Ophelia shows her drowning, which is what most people see.
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Brett's Annotated Bibliography (2)

Iago: A Genuine Precursor to Milton’s Satan?

It has been claimed that Milton based Satan from Paradise Regained off of Shakespeare’s Iago, from Othello. Although I agree that these characters are based off of a similar personality type, I believe that they tempt their victims with different rhetorical strategies: Satan deconstructs his enemy’s arguments while Iago constructs true temptations to look like positives. I am hoping to choose two speeches, one from Othello and one from Paradise Regained, that portray the true characters of Iago and Satan, then pair that speech with an image or video that portrays their true character. By looking at these artistic renditions, I will compare and contrast the rhetoric of each villain and how their arguments develop as their characters develop.

·         Canning, Albert Stratford George. Shakespeare Studied in Six Plays. London: T. F. Unwin, 1907. Shakespeare Online. 20 Aug. 2009. 16 Nov. 2016.  < >.
o   “In Rossini's musical version of the terrible scene between Othello and his deceiver, the surprise and anxiety of the former and the subtle insinuations of the latter finally lead to a burst of fury, in which the feelings of the enraged dupe and the triumph of the vindictive Iago are vocally expressed with the full genius of the great composer. In Verdi's duet describing the same passage, the instrumental accompaniment expresses perhaps more than the voices the vehemence and passion of the scene, ending with the almost realistic sound of a fatal stab dealt by a murderous hand. Evidently Rossini and Verdi alike succeeded through their different styles in expressing the true meaning of the terrible scene by the attractive medium of their delightful art.”

·         Hytner, Nicholas. "Nicholas Hytner: With Shakespeare, the Play Is Just a Starting Point." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 12 Apr. 2013. Web. 16 Nov. 2016. <>.
o   It has often been noted that Iago's "motiveless malignancy" in fact comes, in his soliloquies, with a superfluity of motives, as if he himself has difficulty locating the source of his depravity. What Shakespeare has done, of course, is to pay his fellow actor the compliment of trusting him to complete Iago for himself. He provides the actor with a solid enough starting point: Iago is consumed by the promotion of Cassio. But thereafter, the play works overtime not to lock Iago down, and seems to invite the actor to allow himself to be surprised by what happens to Iago: a man driven by envy and hatred, who isn't fully in control of what happens next (as none of us is), to whom the action of the play occurs spontaneously – as life happens to all of us.

·         Morris, Sylvia. "Othello, Iago and the Search for Character." The Shakespeare Blog. The Shakespeare Blog, 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Nov. 2016. <>.
o   “In his essay Michael Shurgot examines the great temptation scene, Act 3 Scene 3, concentrating on the dangerous section where Iago vividly describes Cassio’s dream. “The striking theatrical paradox of this scene [is that] the more deeply felt and convincingly performed the actor’s impersonation of Iago’s sexual longings, the more incredulous will be Othello’s failure to penetrate Iago’s mask; and the greater the risk that this segment of [the scene] will dissolve into a grotesque parody of Othello’s temptation and fall.””

·         Thaler, Alwin. “The Shakespearian Element in Milton.” PMLA, vol. 40, no. 3, 1925, pp. 645–691.
o   Similarities between Satan in Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained to Iago (659).
o   Othello, II, I, 201-202 vs. P.L. IV, 505-35
o   Othello, I, iii, 322, 344, 353 vs. P.R. 427-431

·         YaleCourses. "22. Paradise Regained, Books III-IV." YouTube. YouTube, 21 Nov. 2008. Web. 12 Nov. 2016. <>.
o   The poem is based on “this intellectual struggle to understand one’s identity” for Christ and Satan (4:03). This causes Satan to reach deep and argue from his soul.

Honoring Shakespeare
·         Adams, Chelsea. "Honoring Shakespeare: Othello's Iago as a Model for Milton's Satan in Paradise Lost." Web blog post. Team Milton. Blogger, 1 Nov. 2013. Web. <>.
o   Bases Satan off of Iago because Milton looked up to Shakespeare in form and mindset.
o   “Milton’s first published poem was “On Shakespeare,” appearing in the Second Folio anonymously. The work, especially being Milton’s first published work, shows Milton’s reverence and honor for the greatest poet and playwright of his age” (1).

Christ Casts Satan Down Jesus & Satan
·         Christ Casts Satan Down. Digital image. Typology in Paradise Regained. Web. 14 Nov. 2016. <>.
Othello and Iago  Image result for iago othello
·         Othello and Iago, from National Theatre. Digital image. Quotes Gram, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2016. <>.

·         Ewan McGregor Talks about Iago. Perf. Ewan McGregor. Custardflix, 17 Sept. 2008. Web. 12 Nov. 2016. <>
o   Iago gets carried away with the power and is on a mad power surge (1:27-1:45).
o   Shakespeare denies explanation to characters and audience because Iago has no rational explanation (2:14-2:28).

·         Othello: Iago and Othello. National Theatre. Perf. Adrian Lester and Rory Kinnear. National Theatre Discover, 25 Sept. 2013. Web. 11 Nov. 2016. <>.
o   Iago is disgruntled because he is Othello’s most trusted confidant and has seen the horrors of war with him.
o   Sees himself as slighted and therefore plays on the “sensitive and vulnerable and weak” parts of Othello’s character (4:12).
o   Iago sees his grievances as legitimate, and uses “subterfuge” and “insinuation” to fulfill his destructive plans (4:34).

Homie: Justin
·         My husband Justin and I watched an Iago soliloquy and a Satan soliloquy together, then discussed similarities and differences between the two. We came to the conclusion that in his “put money in thy pocket” speech (almost a soliloquy, but very representative of his rhetoric), Iago uses the temptations characteristic of Satan: riches, sexual desire, and revenge. Ian McKellen also speaks quietly and quickly, forcing his audience to listen without interrupting and without major focus. In his representation of Satan, Ian Richardson is also collected in the beginning—his argument is headed in a certain direction and he is very eloquent. However, the further along he gets, he loses clarity. Instead of tempting with “basic” temptations in order to build his side up, Justin claimed that Satan was attacking heaven. Rather than constructing the attractiveness of his own side (like Iago), Satan deconstructed the opposing side.
· (Ian McKellen as Iago)
o   Calmly angry—able to channel his rage to get exactly what he wants
o   Speaks softly and quickly, doesn’t give his audience a long time to get upset
o   Blurs the lines between love and lust to make lust seem okay
o   Tempts using riches, revenge, sexual desire
· (Ian Richardson as Satan, speech in Book I of P.R.)
o   Calm and collected at the beginning, knows exactly where his argument is headed next. Builds steam as he goes on and gets very angry
o   “though few be lost, not all be lost” à expresses hope in himself and his temptations
o   Portrays Christ as the tyrant, “Tyranny of heaven”

Peer: Chelsea Adams, author of a blog post from Dr. Burton’s 2013 Milton class, now getting a Ph.D. in 20th century African Lit.
o   Extremely awesome for sending me an article that was unfortunately, ultimately unhelpful
o   “1. Look for research on the history of rhetoric for that time period (Meaning both when Shakespeare would have studied and when Milton would have studied.) I know that back when, the big controversy with rhetoric was that people would use it without regard to the morality of whatever it was they were using rhetoric to argue. As far as I can determine, this was a heated debate clear back in Ancient Greece. Looking at those "moral arguments" for not teaching rhetoric to everyone or using rhetoric to argue everything may be the key to unlocking the crux of your argument.”
Enthusiast: Amanda, author of Shakespeare-Online.
o   Emailed, no response yet.
Expert: Robert Means, HBLL librarian over English Language and Literature
o   Robert was helpful in pointing me toward some helpful research guides that I was unfamiliar with initially, and thus used incorrectly to search for articles.

o   “You’re correct . . . we don’t have a separate research guide for Milton (only Shakespeare for now). But, never fear, the Milton stuff IS out there: in the MLA Bibliography, JSTOR, etc., and in monographs (books) that you can find by searching the HBLL catalog.”
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McKay's Annotated Bibliography (2)

Working Title: Well I like “Julius Caesar and Fate vs. Destiny.”

Working Thesis: In Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, the idea of fate is heavily explored as Caesar comes to believe that he must become emperor and Brutus thinks he must assassinate him. While both stoics believe they have no choice in the matter, Shakespeare identifies that both men were guided by their own decisions rather than outside forces.

Social Sources

1.     Expert- Professor Brandie Siegfried was able to meet with me and we discussed the literary concept of fate v. destiny and how Shakespeare really wrestled with this concept in his plays. She also talked about how fate and destiny could be seen through an ethical lens and how some characters made their decisions based on whether they saw the world- a world determined by choices or a world shaped by outside forces.

This source will really help me because it gives me specific ideas about my thesis as well as background to the ideas of Shakespeare. She was really great to bounce ideas off and get specific ideas for other sources that I could use.

2.     Enthusiast- A blogger from Tumblr, costlyblood, not sure what his real name is, but he is really into Shakespeare and was able to analyze some lines from Julius Caesar and talked specifically about some literary devices.

I was able to contact him and ask about his ideas of fate and destiny in the play, he hasn’t responded yet but I am hoping to get some specific ideas from him as well as use some of his ideas about form and rhythm in what he has said about the play already.

3.     Peer- Deborah Jensen, a fellow student in my British Literary History class, was able to help me out and discussed with me her thoughts on Julius Caesar and why Brutus decided to kill Caesar.

This helps my paper because she really gave me specific insight on Brutus which will be vital to my piece because I am going to analyze his decisions and speeches.

4.     Homie- Micah Campbell, my wife, was able to contribute to my paper by talking about the ethical dilemmas behind prescribing to a life of fate or a life of destiny.

This was an important source because I was able to seek an outside source of someone who does not have an opinion on the characters of the play but rather solely on the topic of the paper.


1.     Royal Shakespeare Company. “Julius Caesar, Act 3 Scene 2|2012|Royal Shakespeare Company.” YouTube. YouTube, 2012. Web. 18 Nov. 2016.

This is a performance of Brutus’ speech after Caesar died, set in a more modern time in Africa. The backdrop is dark, with a single spotlight on Brutus, surrounded by his countrymen.

This is a video of one of the most important scenes of the play and is great to analyze how the people’s attitude towards Brutus and Caesar change.

2.     Royal Shakespeare Company. “Man of Honour VS Man of Action| Julius Caesar|Royal Shakespeare Company.” YouTube. YouTube, 2012. Web. 18 Nov. 2016.

This is commentary on the scene mentioned above and how Brutus and Antony have a speech dialogue and are opposed to one another. Both actors defend their character’s stance towards the death of Caesar and the reasons for why they did what they did.

This is perfect to use in my paper because the actors talk about the ethics of the decision of Brutus. They also characterize their characters by “man of honour” and “man of action,” which in a way goes along with my thesis.
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Christopher's Annotated Bibliography 2

Billington, Michael. "King Lear- Review." The Guardian. Guardian News Media, 1 Aug. 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.  In a mixed review of Lucy Bailey's 60's gangster version of King Lear, Billington points to Samuel Edward-Cook's portrayal of Edmund as a promiscuous bisexual as one of the highlights of the show.  This review of a performance is important in that it exemplifies Edmund's portrayal in modern theater as a queer character.
"King Lear | Richard Goulding and Kieran Bew on playing Edmund and Edgar | Digital Theatre Plus."  Youtube, uploaded by DigitalTheatrePlus, 19 March 2013,  The actors Kieran Bew and Richard Goulding, who acted in a 2012 production of King Lear staged at the Almedia in London, discuss the brotherly dynamics between Edgar and Edmund in the play.  This interview is interesting for my argument in that it sheds light on the idea of Edmund as cultural deviant rather than just a merely sexual one.
Social Sources
Expert.  Michael Ryan.  Professor Ryan teaches film and media arts at Temple University and I found out about him by reading his article "Queer Lear: A Gender Studies Reading of Shakespeare's King Lear."  I emailed him about his thoughts on the ambiguity of Edmund's sexuality in light of his queer reading of the play and he gave me his insights about Edmund's sexuality only being ambiguous in a heteronormative reading of the play.  The idea of Edmund being heterosexual in a queer reading of the play adds complexity to the scholarly debate and should be discussed in the essay.
Expert.  Drew Daniel.  Dr. Drew Daniel is one half of the gay experimental techno duo Matmos and an associate professor of English literature at Johns Hopkins University.  I found out about him by listening to his work as Matmos and reading some of his articles.  I would email him about his views on how Edmund's ambiguous sexuality modify the popular discussion of the play since his perspective would be interesting as someone who bridges the academic and popular spheres.
*Has not gotten back to me yet.
Enthusiast.  Darren McGarvey.  He was my high school theater teacher who enjoyed teaching Shakespeare and emphasizing the performance aspect.  I emailed him about how he thought Edmund's sexuality figured into modern performances of the character.  I believe that as someone who is aware of Shakespeare and has experience with Shakespearean performances, McGarvey's interpretation could shed some interesting light on my argument.
*Has not emailed back yet.
Peer.  Elise Simmons.  She is in my Shakespeare class and also doing a research paper about Edmund in King Lear.  I chose this person since she is also researching Edmund and might be able to point me towards scholarship which elucidates Edmund's character.  I direct messaged her on the classroom Slack page asking if she had found anything in her research about Edmund's sexuality and/or deviance.
*Has not contacted me back yet.
Homie.  Dariya Smith.  Dariya Smith is an English major who is also minoring in Women's Studies and has a strong interest in gender issues in literature.  I chose her because of her passion for the intersection between literature and gender, which most of my homies seem to lack.  I talked to her about the evidence for Edmund's ambiguous sexuality and how this seems to crop up in recent adaptations.  During our conversation she pushed me to come up with more evidence from the text that Edmund's sexuality is debatable, which is critical for crafting a decent argument.
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